Notes for

The Representation of Costumes in the Reliefs of Taq-i-Bustan

Artibus Asiae, Vol. 31, No. 2/3, 1969

Elsie Holmes Peck

50Henri Seyrig, "Arms et costumes iraniens de Palmyre", Syria, Vol. XVIII, 1937, Fig.7, p.52; Fig.9, p,56; Pl. I
51Ibid., p. 56
52Arthur Upham Pope (.ed), A Survey of Persian Art, vol. IV, New York, 1938, Pl. 160A.
53Ibid., silver vessels, Pls. 205, 230A; Roman Ghirshman, Persian Art. The Parthian and Sassanian Dynasties, New York (1962), Pls. 242, p. 203; p. 213; 294, p. 241, Seal of Bahram IV.
54Daniel Schlumberger, “Les fouilles de Qasar el-Heir el-Gharbi”, Syria,, vol. XX, 1939, Pl. XLV 3.
55Ibid., p.329.
56Seyrig, Syria, Pl. V; Fig. II, p. 58; Pl. IV; Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 91, p. 79, from Hatra, Baghdad Museum.
57Ingholt, Gandharan Art, Pl. 417, donor in Iranian costume, Peshawar, from Sahri Bahol, Mound D.
58Maurice Dimand, “A review of Sasanian and Islamic Metalwork, in 'A Survey of Persian Art'”, Ars Islamica, vol. VIII, 1941, pp. 192-214, p. 194.
59Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 244, p. 205; Pl. 401.
60Ibid., Pl. 242, p. 203.
61Dimand, “A review of Sasanian and Islamic Metalwork, in 'A Survey of Persian Art'”, Ars Islamica, vol. VIII, 1941, Fig. 2; p. 194 agrees with Herzfeld's dating to the reign of Khusrau II, not with Trever's to the reign of Peroz, V century A.D.
62Pope, Survey IV, Pl. 239A.
63V. Shishkin, “Noviye pamiatniki iskusstva sogda”, Iskusstvo, No. I, 1966, opp. P. 62.
64Seyrig, Syria, pp. 52, 53; Pl. XXIV 2; Fig. 7, p. 52; Pl. I; Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 99, p. 88
65Seyrig, Syria p. 34; J. M. Rosenfield, The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans, Los Angeles, 1967, Figs. 22, 24, stair railing pillars, Mathurâ. Contemporary with the Palmyrenes, the Kushans in the East, also originally nomadic, are depicted on sculpture wearing leggings.
66Seyrig, Syria, p.11 speaking of the Sasanians: “Ces rois protégeaient leurs jambes d'un vêtement dont les plis légers forment comme un nuage au flanc du cheval, et qui, décrit par les modernes comme un pantalon, peut sembler tel en effet sur la plupart des images. Mais si l'on examine de près les reliefs de Sapor 1er (241-272) *, on voit que la tunique, sous ce prince, était fendue particulièrement haut sur les côtés et montrait le bord supérieur de la jambière, pourvu d'un gros bouton : à celui-ci s'attachait un ruban, qui disparaissait sous la tunique pour être fixé à une ceinture invisible.”
67Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 196, p.152; Pl. 197, p. 153; Pl. 205, p. 161; Pl. 339, p. 262.
68D. A. Smirnoff, Argenterie orientale, St Petersburg, 1909, Pl. XXXII, no. 60.
69Richard Frye, The Heritage of Persia, London, 1962, Pl.126.
70T. T. Rice, Ancient Arts of Central Asia, New York, 1965, Pl. 179, p. 191; Seyrig, Syria, Fig. 3, p. 12; J G Mahler, The Westerners among the Figures of the T'ang Dynasty of China, Rome, 1959, Pl. Va, figurine of a Western Asiatic; by the seventh and eighth centuries A.D. in China, tomb figurines represent Central Asian types wearing legging-like boots.
71Seyrig, Syria, Pl. II; von Le Coq, Chotscho, Berlin, 1913, Pl. 22, Pranidhiszene, no. 6, Temple 9; L. I. Andrews, Wall Paintings from Ancient Shrines in Central Asia, London, 1948, Pl. XXVII, Shrine 12.
72Seyrig, Syria, Seyrig describes these boots on p.54; aux jambes revêtues soit de jambières soit de bottes, dont la tige monte jusque vers le genou : un oeillet percé près du bord supérieur livre passage à un cordon, par lequel cette tige était suspendue à une ceinture placée sous la tunique.”
73Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 430, p. 321, Kabul Museum
74Laurence Sickman, Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of China, Baltimore, 1965, Pls. 40, 41, funerary stone couch.
75Benjamin Rowland, The Arts and Architecture of India, Baltimore, 1954, pp. 75-78, Pl.44, statue of Kanishka, mid II century A.D.
76Mario Bussagli, Painting of Central Asia, Geneva, 1964, p. 57, the “Iranian Bodhisatrva” votive tablet, Sanctuary D VII, British Museum; p59; Khotanese religious legend, votive tablet, Sanctuary D VII; p. 56, seated figure, votive tablet, Sanctuary X.
77von Le Coq, Wandmalereien, Pl. 8.
78Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 242, p 203; Pope, Survey IV, Pl. 239A.
79Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 259, p 218.
80Pope, Survey IV, Pl. 217, Hermitage Museum; Smirnoff, Argenterie orientale, Pl. XXXVII, no. 66.
81Clément Huart, Ancient Persian and Iranian Civilization, New York, 1927, p. 165.
82Rowland, The Arts and Architecture of India, Baltimore, 1954, Pl. 44, Curzon Museum Muttra.
83Bussagli, Painting of Central Asia, Geneva, 1964, Pl. 80, Staatliche Museen, Berlin; J G Mahler, The Westerners among the Figures of the T'ang Dynasty of China, Rome, 1959, Pls. XVIIIb, XIXa, tomb figures; p. 111, the caftan with two lapels seem to be worn chiefly by grooms and acrobats in seventh century T'ang figurines.
84Rowland, The Arts and Architecture of India, Baltimore, 1954, Pl. 57, painting on vault of niche of 120-foot Buddha.
85A. M. Belenitski, B. L. Voronina, P. I Kostrov, “Skulptura i Zivopis' drevnego Pjandzikenta”, Akademii Nauk, Moscow, 1959, Pl. XXXVII.
86V. Shishkin, “Noviye pamiatniki iskusstva sogda”, Iskusstvo, No. I, 1966, opp. p. 62.
87Victor Goloubew, “Documents pour server à l'étude d'Ajanta, les peintures de la première grotte”, Ars Asiatica, vol, X, Paris, Pl. LV, cave I
88Ernst Herzfeld, Die Malereien von Samarra, vol. III, Berlin, 1927, Pl. LXIX; Arthur Lane, Early Islamic Pottery, London, 1948, Pl. 20A
89Daniel Schlumberger, “Le palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar”, Syria, vol. XXI, 1952, Pl. XXXI.
90Ibid., p. 266
91A. F. Kendrick, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles, Catalogue of the Textiles from the Burying-Grounds in Egypt, vol. I, Pl. 1 no. 4, child's linen tunic, tapestry-woven roundels on shoulder.
92Doro Levi, Antioch Mosaic Pavements, vol. II, Princeton, 1947, Pl. LXXVIIIc.
93Pope, Survey IV, Pl. 205; Pl. 206; Pl. 231A; Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 250, p. 210; Pl. 254, p. 213; Ernst Herzfeld, Iran, Fig. 402, p.309, Graffitum representing Papak, early III century A.D., Persepolis. He is shown wearing embroidered roundels on the shoulders of his quilted coat. An early representation of an epaulette in Iran, is a gold epaulette from Ziwiyeh, ca. 700 B.C. in the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Charles Wilkinson, “Treasure from the Mannean Land”, The Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N. S., April, 1963, Pl. 5, p. 277.
94Belenitski, Pjandzikenta, Pl. XXXVII.
95Ingholt, Gandharan Art, Pl. 417, Mound D; Rosenfield, The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans, Los Angeles, 1967, Figs. 67, 68.
96Ingholt, Gandharan Art, p. 162
97Ibid., p.162, cites Ingholt, Berytus, p, 80, no. 121, Pl. XXXVII 2.
98N.P. Griaznov, L'art ancient de l'Altai, Leningrad, 1958, Pl. 56
99Bussagli, Painting of Central Asia, Geneva, 1964, p. 80
100Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 244, Pl. 244, p. 205; Pl. 401, Pl. 245, p. 206; Pl. 242, p. 203.
101von Le Coq, Chotscho, Berlin, 1913, Pl. 22, Pranidhiszene, no. 6, Temple 9; Pl. 28, Temple 9; Pl. 31, South wall of the cella, Temple 9; Albert Grünwedel, Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan, Berlin, 1912, Fig. 274, Fig. 567, p. 275, cave 20.
102von Le Coq, Chotscho, Berlin, 1913, Pl. 22, Temple 9, kneeling groom to the left and kneeling donor to the right of the Buddha wear belts with thongs. The latter belt has a ring from which a scabbard is attached by a cord.
103Ibid., Pl. 30 Temple 9.
104Ibid., Pl. 38, Cloisters of Temple 12.
105V. Shishkin, “Noviye pamiatniki iskusstva sogda”, Iskusstvo, No. I, 1966, opp. p. 62.
106 Albert Grünwedel, Altbuddhistische Kultstätten in Chinesisch-Turkistan, Berlin, 1912, Fig. 443. p. 197, Cave 32; Fig. 464, p. 207, cave 6.
107Sir Aurel Stein, Innermost Asia. A Detailed Report of Explorations in Central Asia, Kan-Su And Eastern Iran, Oxford, 1932, vol. III, Pl. CV, Cemetery Ast., iii, 4. 010. a. The Painting represents a page wearing a belt with thongs. vol. II, p. 694, Stein describes the belt as, “A black girdle from which depend six ribbons studded with pearls”. It is more likely, however, that these too are of leather.
108Roman Ghirshman, “Scènes de banquet sur l'argenterie sassanide”, Artibus Asiae, vol. XVI, 1955, p. 69.
109Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), “Trois epées sassanides”, Artibus Asiae, Vol. XXVI, 1962, p.305.
110Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Artibus Asiae, Vol. XVI, p. 69.
111Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Artibus Asiae, Vol. XXVI, p. 305.
112Smirnoff, Argenterie orientale, Pl. XXXVII no. 66, the central figure and the musicians wear belts with thongs.
113Ernst Herzfeld, Die Malerien von Samarra, vol. III, Berlin, 1927, Pls. XIX, LXV, XVI, Djausaq Palace, Throne Room; Pl. XLIII, Djausaq Palace, Harem.
114Walter Hauser, Charles Wilkinson, “The Museum's Excavations at Nishapur”. The Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. XXXVIII, 1942, p. 119.
115Walter Hauser, Charles Wilkinson, “The Museum's Excavations at Nishapur”. The Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. XXXVIII, 1942, p. 118.
116Ibid., p.119
117Daniel Schlumberger, “Le palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar”, Syria, vol. XXI, 1952, Pl. XXXI. 2.
118Ibid., p. 267.
119Rudolf Riefstahl, “Persian Islamic Stucco Sculptures, Representations of the Human Figure in Islamic Art”, The Art Bulletin, vol. 34, 1931, Fig. 25.
120Basil Gray, “A Seljuk Hoard from Persia”, The British Museum Quarterly, vol. XIII, Pl. XXXIIa, b.
121Ibid., p75.
122L. van den Berghe, Archiologie de l'Iran ancien, Leiden, 1959, pp. 104, 105; the author describes figures in the boats of the Boar Hunt relief as women; Arthur Christensen, L'Iran sous les Sassanides, Paris, 1936, p.465; the author describes figures in the boats of the Boar Hunt relief as women; Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), p. 193, “The king is rowed across a swamp escorted by boatfuls of female musicians singing and beating time”. Herzfeld, Am Tor, pp. 94, 95, describes the figures and the servant carrying the parasol in the Stag Hunt relief as women. These figures are nobles of the king's court since their costumes are those worn only by men and because two of the figures in the boat clapping are bearded.
123Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 105, p. 94; Pl. 259, p. 218; Seyrig, Syria, Fig. 16, p. 62.
124W. F. Volbach, Early Christian Art, New York, 1961, Pl. 25, porphyry group of the Emperors Diocletian, Maximianus, Galerius, and Constantius I Chlorus, ca. 300 A.D.
125Ingholt, Gandharan Art, Pl. 417; Rosenfield, The Kushans, Fig. 3.
126Ghirshman, Persian Art (1962), Pl. 250, p. 210; Pl. 259, p. 218; Pl. 247, p. 206, silver vessels.
127Pope, Survey IV, Pl. 239A.
128Smirnoff, Argenterie orientale, Pl. LVIII no. 92.
129Prudence Harper has suggested in conversation with the author that the low form of the king's cap in the Boar and Stag Hunt reliefs is a natural development from Kusrau II's crown seen on his coins where a flat cap is incorporated with the ceremonial features of crescent moon, star, etc. See Furdoonie Paruck, Sasanian Coins, Bombay, 1924, Pl. SSI, nos. 459, 461, 462, 464.
130Frye, Heritage of Persia, pp.227, 228.
131Clément Huart, Ancient Persian and Iranian Civilization, New York, 1927, p. 130.
132Frye, Heritage of Persia, pp.227, 228.
133Ibid., p. 228.
134Ibid., p. 221. Clément Huart, Ancient Persian and Iranian Civilization, New York, 1927, p. 134.
135Tabari, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, aus der Arabischen Chronik des Tabari, trans. By Th. Nöldeke, Leyden, 1879, p. 353.
136Arthur Christensen, L'Iran sous les Sassanides, Paris, 1936, p. 448, cites from Théophylacte IV, 8; trans. From the French of Christensen.


Back to The Representation of Costumes in the Reliefs of Taq-i-Bustan by Elsie Holmes Peck.